###### By Anupum Pant

Here’s an image of a contraption. It is basically a long stick hinged at one end and is free to move about the other. At the end of it rests a ball. Near the ball there’s also a cup fastened to the stick. The big stick is lifted up high and is temporarily supported by a small stick.

Now, what do you think would happen when the temporary support is removed? Normally, it would be very intuitive to think that the cup and the ball would fall at the same speed. In other words, nothing fascinating would happen. Both would fall and the ball would roll away…no?

However, something very unexpected happens when the support is removed. Something that, in a jiffy demonstrates some very important concepts of physics like centre of mass, torque and acceleration.

The big wooden stick (with the fastened cup) falls and it falls faster than the ball. Actually it falls and also rotates. As a result of the swing, the cup comes under the ball just before ball reaches it and the ball ends up inside it.

Under the influence of the same gravitational force, irrespective of the mass, the cup and the ball must have fallen at the same rate, as predicted by Galileo? What really happens? The video explains…

## [Video] What Travels Faster Than Light

###### By Anupum Pant

Like always, another one of those awesome Vsauce videos where Michael explains how darkness and scissor intersections can travel faster than light and still not go against any physics laws. So much to learn! Let me just say nothing today.

P.S there’s a mention of the Dunning Kruger effect and the story of Mr. Mc Arthur Wheeler I covered some time back on the blog.

## Mpemba Effect – Hot Water Freezes Faster Than Cold Water

###### By Anupum Pant

In the past, we have seen that when it comes to estimating temperature, we are not so smart. Once again seeing the Mpemba Effect defying all known logic, reminds me to be careful about applying logic to most of the natural phenomena which are seemingly simple but in reality are extremely complicated.

By applying simple logic, a 7-year-old could tell you that cold water should turn into ice quicker than hot water would. It should, because a hot liquid contains a lot more heat as compared to a colder liquid, which [the heat]  has to be removed in order to freeze it. Yes, it is what anyone who is unaware of the Mpemba Effect would think. But, that isn’t the case with water. It turns out that a very common substance – water – is not as simple as it looks.

### Mpemba Effect

Since the time of Aristotle and Descartes, scientists have noted that hot water can freeze faster than cold water (and yet the effect is not popularly known among us today). Although the effect was noted back then, the actual mechanism which caused it remained a mystery all along…until the year 2013.

All this time this effect must have been known by some other term because, it was not until the 1960s it was named “Mpemba effect”. It was named that after a Tanzanian cookery student Erasto Mpemba when he observed that hot ice cream mix froze faster than the cold mix.

Several theories have tried to explain the mechanisms that cause the Mpemba Effect. Not even one of them was convincing enough. Probably this is what propelled the geniuses from Singapore who could finally solve this mystery during the month of October this year.

### What causes it?

In simple words, Hydrogen bonds cause this effect – faster freezing hot water. Normally, individual water molecules are connected by this bond called the Hydrogen bond. Think of the water molecule as a string with two bullies – hydrogen bonds – one on either side. These Hydrogen bonds pull this string from both sides. As a result, the string stretches. We’ve all fought with rubber bands and know that a stretched string has a butt load of energy stored inside it. The same thing happens with water. Energy is stored in stretched water molecules at normal temperature. This extra energy has to be removed to cool water.

At a higher temperature, the heat kind of weakens these bullies. So, the weak bullies aren’t able to pull the string as much. Now, individual molecules sit apart. They are no longer stretched. Thus, not much energy is stored in these strings anymore. They have given up energy. There is no longer any extra energy that needs to be removed. Hence, cooling is faster.

Sorry: Today I don’t have my buddy – the internet – with me. So, you won’t see any outgoing reference links today. I have a just a bit of internet (a slower 2G connection) which I’m using up to publish this.