The History of 3D Printing

by Megan Ray Nichols 

3D printing has taken the world by storm in the last decade, but the technology isn’t as new as you might think. Believe it or not, the idea behind that desktop-sized 3D printer in your shop dates back to the 1980s. Let’s take a closer look at the history of 3D printing and where it might go in the future.

The 1980s — The Birth of 3D Printing

The first attempt at creating a 3D printer occurred in 1980. Dr. Hideo Kodama filed a patent in May of that year. This new 3D printer relied on photopolymer materials — liquids that could be printed, then exposed to light to harden into plastic. While this plan does sound like a viable one, Kodama never commercialized the design, and the 3D printing industry seemed dead on arrival.

In 1986, Chuck Hull invented the SLA-1 — the world’s first 3D printer that could build objects one layer at a time. In this case, the SLA-1 used lasers to cause selected chains of molecules to link together, forming plastics or polymers. The next year, Carl Deckard of the University of Texas came up with a different type of 3D printing — Selective Laser Sintering, or SLS. Deckard’s machine built an object out of layers of powder, then used lasers to melt the powder, hardening it into the finished plastic.

In 1989, S. Scott and Lisa Crump, a married pair of inventors, came up with the 3D printing technology that we know today — fused deposition modeling. The machine would melt a polymer filament and deposit it onto a substrate layer by layer until it finished the design.

3D printing had officially been born, but these early models lacked something — an easy and user-friendly way to design things for printing.

The 1990s — Computer-Aided Design

Designing something for a 3D printer might seem easy now, but imagine doing it without a CAD program at your fingertips. That’s what the early 3D designers had to do — create plans to build their objects without the assistance of a computer-aided design program. Commercial CAD programs became more readily available throughout the 1990s, though purchasing a 3D printer was still often too expensive for the home inventor.

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7 Problems with Scientific Translation

Erica Sunarjo

All over the world, scientists are conducting groundbreaking research, writing compelling papers, and educating people on a variety of topics. Everyone benefits when scientific information is disseminated across the Globe. Of course, not all scientists speak the same language. As a result, scientific documentation, texts, research notes, and other materials must be translated, so they are available to anyone who can benefit from them.

Thankfully, there are services that offer scientific translation and localization.  However, the process is not always as simple as one might assume. If translation professionals don’t take special care, mistakes can happen. Here are 7 problems with scientific translations that both translators and members of the scientific community must be aware of.

Lack of Translator Expertise

Scientific and technical translations can cover an exceptionally wide range of industries and academic disciplines. Some of these are quite advanced. Others are simply unique and require very specific skills and background to understand. It can be difficult to find translators with the right expertise to execute accurate and certifiable translations. People who need such translations struggle to find qualified translation professionals and often fail to get final translations that are accurate.

In these situations, translation services and their clients must take extra steps to ensure accuracy. This might include having subject matter experts in addition to translation professionals verify documents, provide needed details, and assist those involved in the product to ensure accuracy.

Unclear Source Documents

Even scientific documents can contain idioms, jargon, and phraseology that can make translation challenging. In addition to this, scientific workers and researchers may use different words and phrases to reference scientific and clinical terms. There’s also the issue of false friends. These are words that sound very similar in two languages but are actually distinct. This can be further confused by the fact that in scientific research many false friends have some similarities. Something as simple as the term ‘medical device’ can cause refusing results due to the false friends phenomenon.

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Why The Skin Wrinkles And The Best Ways To Delay The Process

by Jackie Edwards

Aging is an inescapable biological process that results in cellular wear and tear. Though they say that it comes with wisdom and social respect, aging also brings a series of health issues, including a risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Healthy skin has a soft and smooth epidermis that protects the other two layers of the skin from direct exposure, but as the years go by, it starts to look rough and wrinkled. This is caused by two multifactorial processes known as intrinsic and extrinsic aging. The good news is that you can suppress the wrinkles by taking care of your skin ahead of time. 

What is Intrinsic aging?

Intrinsic aging is the natural deterioration process that takes place as you age. This aging syndrome is influenced by genetic factors that cause cells to lose viability and die. Around the age of 20, one starts to produce 1% less collagen in the skin each year, and as a result, the skin becomes thinner, fragile and more vulnerable. This type of aging inhibits the proper functioning of the sweat glands. Additionally, the skin starts to produce less Elastin and Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Wrinkles that are caused as a result of intrinsic aging are inevitable, and that is why you can approximate the age difference between two different people just by looking at them, according to the American Academy of Dermatology.

Understanding Extrinsic aging

This kind of aging occurs as a result of exposure to various environmental conditions and an unhealthy lifestyle. Some of these factors include exposure to the sun, stress, drug abuse, and pollution. With extrinsic aging, a young person who smokes and uses drugs might have a more troubled complexion than an older person who does not abuse drugs. Influenced aging also affects elements such as Collagen which provides firmness, Elastin which facilitates elasticity and GAGS which help to keep the skin hydrated. Both intrinsic and extrinsic aging cause roughness, uneven tone, brown patches and deep wrinkles. 

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